For mothers participating in WIC, they are encouraged to breastfeed their infants if at all possible, however there are times where that cannot work for a mother or child. For that reason, WIC State agencies provide infant formula for those mothers who are unable or do not breastfeed their infant.

By law, WIC State agencies are strictly required by law, to have infant formula rebates contracts (competitively bid) with infant formula manufacturers. WIC State agencies have agreed to provide one brand of formula and in return the manufacturer gives the State agency a rebate offer for each can of infant formula that is purchased by WIC users.  These brands differ among states, however they are still required.